Structural biology

Structural biology is the study of the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids. It also studies the effects of their functions by making changes in their structure. It includes the concepts of molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics.          

Related societies:
American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) | Society for Experimental Biology (SEB) |ACS Division of Biological Chemistry | International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG)

 

 

 

 

Genetics

Genetics is the scientific study of heredity. Genetics not only pertains to humans but also all other organisms. Genetics today comprises a number of sub branches including: Classical or formal genetics, Clinical genetics, Genetic counseling, Cytogenetics, Biochemical genetics, Pharmacogenetics, Molecular genetics, Immunogenetics, Behavioral genetics, Population genetics, Eco genetics, Reproductive genetics, Developmental genetics, Forensic genetics etc.,

Related societies:
Genetics Society of America (GSA) | American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) | American Board of Medical Genetics (ABMG) | American Board of Genetic Counselors (ABGC) | Association of Professors of Human and Medical Genetics (APHMG)

Molecular Biology

Molecular biology focuses on interaction between the various systems of cell including relationship between DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and their regulation. Scientists in molecular biology use specific techniques native to this field. But nowadays, they are combining these techniques with techniques used in genetics and biochemistry.  Molecular genetics, is the most prominent sub-field of molecular biology.

Related societies :
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) | International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | The French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Israel Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ISBMB) 

Animal biochemistry

Animal Biochemistry is the study of varied chemical reactions going on in the body of animal for surviving. Research in the field of veterinary science and animal husbandry mainly focuses on animal biochemistry to understand the metabolism and function of animals in health, productivity and disease. It studies cellular structure and biochemical function, structure of biomolecules, energy generating pathways, metabolism, transformation of metals, comparative metabolism in ruminants and avians and the regulation of metabolism by hormones and isoprenoids etc.,

Related societies:
Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists (ISAB) | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) |ACS Division of Biological Chemistry | International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) | American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) | Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)  | Society for Experimental Biology (SEB)

 

Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which progresses methods and software tools for understanding complex biological data. It combines biology, computer science, information technology, mathematics and statistics to analyze and interpret biological data. In genetics, it aids in sequencing and annotating genomes and their observed mutations. It also helps in understanding evolutionary aspects of molecular biology.A bioinformatics solution generally involves the following steps: Collect statistics from biological data. Build a computational model. Solve a computational modeling problem. Test and evaluate a computational algorithm.

Related societies:
Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB)European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB) | Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB) | Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) | Society for Experimental Biology (SEB)

 

 

 

Biomolecules

 Biomolecules are the substances produced by a living organisms. Living organisms are made up of various complex biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the whole life processes. Biomolecules have a broad range of sizes and complex structures and perform a vast array of functions. Biomolecules have unique properties which determines their contribution to the structure and function of cells, participation in the processes significant to maintain life.

Related societies:
Association of Bimolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) | Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) | Spanish Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM)|

 

 

Bio-organic Chemistry

Bioorganic chemistry is a branch of science which deals with the study of biological processes using chemical methods. It is a scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry. Biochemistry focus at understanding biological processes using chemistry, while bioorganic chemistry involves in investigating organic compounds (i.e., structures, synthesis, and kinetics) toward biology. When studying about metalloenzymes and cofactors, bioorganic chemistry overlaps with bioinorganic chemistry. Biophysical organic chemistry is used to describe intimate details of molecular recognition by bioorganic chemistry.

Related societies:
Asian Chemical Editorial Society (ACES) | Federation of Asian Chemical Societies (FACS) | Korean Society of Organic Synthesis (KSOS) | European Federation for Medicinal Chemistry (EFMC) | Indian Society of Bioorganic Chemists (ISBOC) | Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI)

Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary field involving principles of physics, chemistry, methods of mathematical analysis and computer modeling to understand mechanisms of biological systems.An important area of biophysical study is the detailed analysis of the structure of molecules in living organisms. It also studies properties of specific molecules.Biophysics overlaps with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering and systems biology.

Related societies:
European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) | Indian Biophysical Society |System biology Asia Biophysics Association | Australian Society for Biophysics (ASB) | Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)

Cell biology

 Cell biology is the study of cells and their functions. It involves physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition, cell to cell interaction and interactions of the cell with their environment. A cell takes in nutrients and convert them into energy to carry out specialized functions, and reproduce if necessary. The cell stores its own set of instructions for carrying out these activities.Cell biology overlaps with other fields such as molecular biology, immunology, genetics and biochemistry.

Related societies:
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) | American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) |American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) | British Society for Cell Biology Indian society of cell biology | Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) 

Chemotaxonomy

Chemotaxonomy also known as Chemical systematics is an attempt to classify and identify different organisms (especially plants and bacteria) based on their biochemical variation. Information obtained from chemistry of plant products is termed photochemistry.The presence and dispersal of the various types of chemical substances present in plants prove to be of taxonomic significance. However, all kinds of chemical substances present in plants do not reveal information useful to the taxonomist.

Related societies:
British Society for Cell Biology Indian society of cell biology | American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) | Korean Society of Organic Synthesis (KSOS) | European Federation for Medicinal Chemistry (EFMC)| Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI

Computational biology

Computational biology is a multidisciplinary field that develops and applies computational methods to analyze huge collections of biological data, such as genetic sequences, cell populations or protein samples, to make new interpretation of experimental data. It involves the application of computer science to understand and model the structures and processes of life.  The computational methods used include analytical methods, mathematical modelling and simulation of biological systems.

Some sub branches of computational biology include Computational anatomy, Computational bio modeling, Computational genomics, Computational neuroscience, etc.,

Related societies:
International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB)| African Society for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology| Australian Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Society Inc. (ABACBS) | Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics| Bangladesh Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Association (BBCBA)

 

 

Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the branch of biology that studies the endocrine system in the human body. Endocrinology is a system of glands which secrete hormones, the chemical messengers which affect the actions of various organ systems in the human body. It involves a number of feedback mechanisms, so that frequently one hormone will control the action of another secondary hormone. If the amount of secondary hormone is more than required amount, it may initiate negative feedback to the primary hormone, to maintain homeostasis. Some examples include thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and insulin.

Related societies:
European Society of Endocrinology | American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) | Indian Society for pediatric and adolescent Endocrinology | Endocrine Society of Australia (ESA) | Association of Program Directors in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism (APDEM) 

Enzymology

Enzymology is the branch of chemistry that studies the structure of enzymes, kinetics, its function, and relation with other enzymes. Enzymes acts as bio-catalysts in a chemical reaction. To form an enzyme-substrate complex, the enzyme changes its shape while binding with substrate.

Related societies:
Association of Bimolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) | American Counseling Association | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | International Society for Enzymology (ISE) | Spanish Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM) 

Gene therapy

 Gene therapy is a type of technique designed to modify the gene expression of an individual or to correct abnormal genes to treat a disease. It is mainly used for identifying the genetic disease in an individual. Gene therapy is currently being in use only for diseases that have no other cures.

Related societies:
European Society of Gene Therapy (ESGT) | American Society of Gene Therapy (ASGT) | Japan Society of Gene Therapy | Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) | Indian Society of Human Genetics | Israeli Society of Medical Geneticists

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also known as gene manipulation or gene modification is the method of direct manipulation of genes of an organism using biotechnological techniques. It has been applied in various fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. An organism that is produced through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified organism (GMO).

Related societies:
American Board of Medical Genetics (ABMG)| National Coalition for Health Education in Genetics (NCHPEG) | International Society of Nurses in Genetics | Russian Society of Human Genetics | Association of Clinical Cytogeneticists (ACC) | Austrian Society for Human Genetics

 

Genomics

Genomics is a multidisciplinary field of biology which focus on the structure, function, inheritance, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. The complete set of DNA of an organism is called its genome. Automatic sequencing machines are used to determined Genomic sequences.

Related societies:
Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) | American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) | National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) | American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG)  | American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC)

Glycobiology

Glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, function and biology of saccharides, also called glycan. Glycans are widely distributed in nature so as present in every living organism. Glycans are essential components of all living things which are researched in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological fields.

Related societies:
American Society for Clinical Investigation | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) | Society for Experimental Biology (SEB) | American Counseling Association | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG)

Immunology

Immunology is the study of the immune system in living organisms and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system always protects us from infections through various lines of methods. If the immune system is not functioning properly as it should, it can result in various infectious disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. It is also clear that immune responses to the development of many common diseases not viewed as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and neuro degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s.

Related societies:
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) | American Association of Immunologists (AAI) | American Board of Allergy and Immunology (ABAI) | American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) | Luxembourg Society for Allergology and Immunology (LSAI) | British Society for Immunology

Metabolism

Metabolism is a complex network of chemical reactions within the confines of a cell that can be analyzed in self-contained parts called pathways. Metabolic pathways contribute to catabolism - the oxidative degradation of molecules, and anabolism - the reductive synthesis of molecules. Living organisms maintain a state of metabolic homeostasis which can be viewed as a steady-state throughput or flow of energy and metabolites to sustain body functions and structures.

Related societies:
Indian Society of Human Genetics | Japan Society of Gene Therapy | Southern African Society for Human Genetics | Society for The Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SSIEM) | Israeli Society of Medical Geneticists

Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the discipline of molecular biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. It investigates the processes involved in storage of genetic information. It also studies expression and regulation of genes at the molecular level The study of chromosomes and gene expression of an organism can give insight into heredity, genetic variation, and mutations.Molecular geneticists look at genes and various ways to manipulate them to treat genetical diseases or for pharmaceutical use.

Related societies:
European Society of Gene Therapy (ESGT) | Association for Clinical Genetic Science (ACGS) | European Genetics Foundation (EGF) | Genetic Society of America (GSA) | National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) | Canadian Collaborative Group for Cancer Genetics (CCGCG)

Molecular Medicine

Molecular Medicine is the application of genetic or DNA-based knowledge to the modern practice of medical history. Molecular Medicine provides contemporary insights into how the genetic revolution is influencing medical thinking and practice. The new edition includes recent changes in personalized medicine, new growth in omics and direct-to-consumer DNA testing, while focusing on advances in the Human Genome project and implications of the advances in clinical medicine.

Related societies:
American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) | Canadian College of Medical Geneticists | Council of Medical Genetics Organizations (COMGO) | National Coalition for Health Education in Genetics (NCHPEG) | Clinical Molecular Genetics Society (CMGS) | Belgian Society for Human Genetics

Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the field of applied science in which manipulation of substances take place at nanoscale to create new and unique materials and products for the benefit of the society. Nano scale ranges from 1nm to 100 nm. Nanotechnology is applied in Electronics, IT industry, Medical and Health Care, Environmental Remediation, Biotechnology industry etc.,

Related societies:
Collaborative Centre for Applied Nanotechnology | Nanotechnology Industries Association (NIA) | International Association of Nanotechnology | National Center for Nanoscience and Technology | Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials

Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry is the study of the identities, structures and functions of compounds (neurochemicals) that are generated by and that modulate the nervous system. Neurochemicals include oxytocin, serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter-regulating substances. This field examines how neurochemicals influence the neurosciences operation of neurons, synapses, and neural networks. Microchemists analyze the biochemistry and molecular biology of organic compounds in the nervous system, and their roles in such neural processes including cortical plasticity, neurogenesis, and neural differentiation

Related societies:
European Society for Neurochemistry (ESN) | Federation of European Physiological Societies (FEPS) | American Society for Neurochemistry | International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN) | Asian Pacific Society for Neurochemistry (APSN) 

Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers or biomolecules, are essential to all known forms of life. The term nucleic acid is the other name for DNA and RNA. They are of mixed composition of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose in Nucleic acid, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) vice versa. Their function is to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus to the interior operations of the cell and finally to the next generation of each living organism.

Related societies:
Nucleic Acids Research Group (NARG) | Proteomics Research Group (PRG) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) | Genomics Research Group (GVRG) | DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG)

Plant Biochemistry

Plant Biochemistry is a very important field of basic science explaining the molecular function of a plant, but is also an applied science that is in the position to contribute to the solution of agricultural and pharmaceutical problems. Plant Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes which is relating to living organisms. By controlling information outflow by biochemical signals and the chemical energy to metabolism, biochemical processes give complexity of life.

Related societies:
Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists (ISAB) | Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB) | The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) | Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) | Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA)

Protein Chemistry

Proteins are organic compounds which are formed of amino acids that are linked together by peptides. They help the body in getting nitrogen, vitamins and sulfur. Proteins are three dimensional in their structure. Their structure can be categorized into four distinctive aspects - primary structure, secondary structure, Quaternary structure and tertiary structure. As this subject is emerging at a rapid pace, the contents are easy to understand the modern concepts and applications of the subject.

Related societies:
Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) | Flow Cytometry Research Group (FCRG) | Protein Expression Research Group (PERG) | Proteomics Research Group (PRG) | Antibody Technology Research Group (ARG) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG)

System biology

The organization and integration of biological systems has been interest to scientists. Systems biology as a formal, organized field of study, however, emerged from the genomics revolution, which was catalyzed by the Human Genome and the availability to biologists of the DNA sequences of the genomes of the humans and many other organisms. The establishment of the field was also influenced heavily by the general recognition that organisms, cells, and other biological entities have an inherently high degree of complexity.

Related societies:
Spanish Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM) | American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG)

Xenobiotics

Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of organism. Without metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations. Most metabolic activity inside the cell requires energy, cofactors, and enzymes in order to occur. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes can be divided into phases like phase I, phase II, and transporter enzymes.

 Related societies:
American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) |  | American Board of Genetic Counselors (ABGC) | Association of Professors of Human and Medical Genetics (APHMG) | Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) | Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG)

 

Metabolic Chemistry

Metabolic Chemistry is the sum of total chemical reactions take place to maintain the organism. Metabolism may be classified into two sub categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is breakdown of cells to obtain energy while anabolism is synthesis of compounds required for maintenance of the organism. Metabolic pathways by which the cell eventually obtains energy is called as bioenergetics. Living organisms maintain a state of metabolic homeostasis which can be viewed as a steady-state throughput or flow of energy and metabolites to sustain body functions and structures.

Related societies:
Indian Society of Human Genetics | Japan Society of Gene Therapy | Southern African Society for Human Genetics | Society for The Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SSIEM) | Israeli Society of Medical Geneticists